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Teach you to understand renal function test

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Kidney is the filtration workshop of human body. It also takes part-time jobs, such as producing endocrine hormones, helping the body control blood pressure, maintaining bone health and so on. Kidney contributes a lot and is vulnerable to injury, but the clinical symptoms of early lesions are not obvious. Some patients come to see a doctor, a test has been uremia.

There are three kinds of diagnostic kidney function: blood examination, ultrasound examination and routine urine examination, and routine urine examination can be said to be the first choice for kidney "post check".

Urine routine examination. When the kidney function is abnormal, the urine protein content or urine volume and other indicators will change.

1. urine volume. Usually the total amount of urine excreted by adults in 24 hours is 1000-2000 ml. Polyuria may occur in chronic pyelonephritis, hypertensive nephropathy, early stage of chronic renal failure, oliguria or anuria may occur in acute glomerulonephritis, acute attack of chronic nephritis and acute renal failure.

2. Color and transparency. Normal fresh urine is light yellow, clear and transparent. Uroscopic examination of erythrocyte in normal subjects showed a 0-occasional/high magnification field of vision. When the field of vision exceeds 3/high magnification, it is common in acute glomerulonephritis, chronic nephritis, renal tuberculosis, renal tumors or acute cystitis. Uroscopic examination of white blood cells plus pus cells in normal subjects did not exceed 5/high power field of vision. Over this figure, it may be acute glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, renal tuberculosis.

3. Acidity (pH). Under normal dietary conditions, the random uric acid basicity ranged from 4.5 to 8.0. Urine acidity and alkalinity decreased in nephritis and increased in tubular acidosis.

4. Protein. The urinary protein content of normal people is very low. Persistent proteinuria is one of the markers of kidney disease and can also reflect the progress of nephropathy.

5. Urinary microalbumin (mALB). Usually, microalbuminuria is considered as an early renal disease, which is a sign of early renal damage such as diabetic nephropathy and hypertensive nephropathy.

Blood tests. Blood and kidney function examination is of great value in guiding the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases.

1. Urea. When the renal function was slightly impaired, the blood urea value could not change. When it is higher than the normal value, 60% to 70% of the effective nephron has been damaged. Therefore, urea measurement can not be used as an indicator of early renal insufficiency, but has special value in the diagnosis of renal failure, especially azotemia.

2. Creatinine (Cr). When the renal parenchyma is damaged, the glomerular filtration rate decreases. When the glomerular filtration rate decreases to a certain extent, the serum creatinine concentration rises sharply, which is common in the impaired glomerular filtration function caused by various reasons. It is also helpful in differentiating prerenal renal failure from oliguria.

3. beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-MG). This is a very sensitive and specific index reflecting proximal tubule damage, which can better understand the glomerular filtration function. Various acute and chronic nephritis, renal failure, diabetic nephropathy, renal tumors, renal transplantation rejection and so on can lead to this increase.

4. Uric acid (UA). Uric acid is mainly excreted through the kidney, so the determination of serum uric acid can understand the renal function. Acute or chronic nephritis, pyelonephritis, renal tuberculosis and so on can increase blood uric acid.

5. Cystatin C (Cys-C). It can be used for early assessment of renal filtration function in diabetic nephropathy, early diagnosis of hypertensive renal function damage, assessment of renal function recovery in renal transplantation patients, monitoring of renal function changes in hemodialysis patients, evaluation of renal function in the elderly, diagnosis of pediatric nephropathy, monitoring of renal function in chemotherapy, etc.

In short, most kidney diseases can be detected by routine urine examination. Some patients have normal urine routine examination, but renal function has occurred problems, we need to further check through kidney B ultrasonography and blood extraction.

In our daily life, we should do the following to protect our kidneys.

Recognize early signals. Typical symptoms of early kidney disease include hypertension, edema, foam like urine, hematuria, and some patients may have only fatigue and other discomfort.

Regular physical examination. Healthy people have a physical examination once a year. If there are people with hypertension, diabetes, obesity and high uric acid, it is recommended that urinary routine and blood and kidney function be checked every 3 months to 6 months.

Do not abuse drugs, keep away from heavy metals and poisons. Long-term use of some medicines may damage the kidney. It is recommended that medicines be used safely under the guidance of doctors. In addition, avoid exposure to lead, chromium, mercury and other heavy metals, benzene, toluene, phenol and other organic solvents, raw fish gall, poisonous mushrooms and other biological toxins, in order to prevent serious damage to the kidney.

No holding back. Suffocation of urine can cause urine to remain in the bladder for a long time, which can easily cause bacterial reproduction, infection of the kidney and pyelonephritis. Healthy adults are advised to take 1.5-2 litres of liquid every day.

Weight control. Hold your mouth, open your legs, and focus on moderate and low-intensity exercises, such as jogging, Tai chi, gymnastics, yoga, etc. It can not only control sugar, but also help improve immunity and alleviate inflammation.